Table of Contents - Fundamental Principles of Optical Lithography

The Science of Microfabrication


Full Table of Contents: TOC.pdf

Abbreviated Table of Contents:


1. Introduction to Semiconductor Lithography

1.1 Basics of IC Fabrication
1.2 Moore’s Law and the Semiconductor Industry
1.3 Lithography Processing

2. Aerial Image Formation – The Basics

2.1 Mathematical Description of Light
2.2 Basic Imaging Theory
2.3 Partial Coherence
2.4 Some Imaging Examples

3. Aerial Image Formation – The Details

3.1 Aberrations
3.2 Pupil Filters and Lens Apodization
3.3 Flare
3.4 Defocus
3.5 Imaging with Scanners Versus Steppers
3.6 Vector Nature of Light
3.7 Immersion Lithography
3.8 Image Quality

4. Imaging in Resist: Standing Waves and Swing Curves

4.1 Standing Waves
4.2 Swing Curves
4.3 Bottom Antireflection Coatings
4.4 Top Antireflection Coatings
4.5 Contrast Enhancement Layer
4.6 Impact of the Phase of the Substrate Reflectance
4.7 Imaging in Resist
4.8 Defining Intensity

5. Conventional Resists: Exposure and Bake Chemistry

5.1 Exposure
5.2 Post-Apply Bake
5.3 Post-exposure Bake Diffusion
5.4 Detailed Bake Temperature Behavior
5.5 Measuring the ABC Parameters

6. Chemically Amplified Resists: Exposure and Bake Chemistry

6.1 Exposure Reaction
6.2 Chemical Amplification
6.3 Measuring Chemically Amplified Resist Parameters
6.4 Stochastic Modeling of Resist Chemistry

7. Photoresist Development

7.1 Kinetics of Development
7.2 The Development Contrast
7.3 The Development Path
7.4 Measuring Development Rates

8. Lithographic Control in Semiconductor Manufacturing

8.1 Defining Lithographic Quality
8.2 Critical Dimension Control
8.3 How to Characterize Critical Dimension Variations
8.4 Overlay Control
8.5 The Process Window
8.6 H–V Bias
8.7 Mask Error Enhancement Factor (MEEF)
8.8 Line-End Shortening
8.9 Critical Shape and Edge Placement Errors
8.10 Pattern Collapse

9. Gradient-Based Lithographic Optimization: Using the Normalized Image Log-Slope

9.1 Lithography as Information Transfer
9.2 Aerial Image
9.3 Image in Resist
9.4 Exposure
9.5 Post-exposure Bake
9.6 Develop
9.7 Resist Profile Formation
9.8 Line Edge Roughness
9.9 Summary

10. Resolution Enhancement Technologies

10.1 Resolution
10.2 Optical Proximity Correction (OPC)
10.3 Off-Axis Illumination (OAI)
10.4 Phase-Shifting Masks (PSM)
10.5 Natural Resolutions

Appendix A. Glossary of Microlithographic Terms

Appendix B. Curl, Divergence, Gradient, Laplacian

Appendix C. The Dirac Delta Function



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